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Automating Native And Hybrid Mobile Apps With Espresso on LambdaTest




In the ever-growing world of Mobile app development, ensuring the performance and overall quality of your Android apps is supreme. One of the crucial aspects of this is effective and reliable mobile app testing. Mobile device testing lab play an important or pivotal role in this course, enabling software developers to validate their apps on an extensive suite of real-world devices and configurations. When it comes to such a form of testing, Espresso is the most preferred choice.

Launched by Google, Espresso is an Android automated testing framework that has immensely gained popularity because of its higher performance. It is also an open-source or free tool, therefore developers can effortlessly customize it. One of the research from the University of Oulu, also revealed that Espresso is tremendously fast and has the shortest test implementation time and shortcoming. You can easily run Espresso testing in both Kotlin and Java languages.

Understanding Espresso: The Android Tests Framework

Expresso is part of the Android Testing Support Library extensively used for testing Android apps. It is a top-notch open-source automated test framework perfectly designed to provide a brief and intuitive API for writing User Interface testing. With Espresso, software developers can interact with and validate the behavior of several UI elements in their applications.

By providing a user-friendly Application Programming Interface and automatic synchronization with the User Interface thread, Espresso streamlines the complete test process and confirms that actions & assertions are performed at suitable times. It also manages the test orchestration, launching the target application, and executing the testing in an organized manner.

Its ViewMatchers help locate particular User Interface components based on their properties, whereas ViewActions simulate consumer interactions such as entering text or clicking buttons. Software developers can define ViewAssertions to examine the expected content or state of UI components.

Why is Espresso Testing crucial For App Testing?

When you are working on any Android project, authorizing your projects across multiple cycles, such as build or set up, development, and testing, can be tricky. Take a glance at the key pointers that demand the necessity for Android testing of the app UI-

  • Each Android build necessitates authentication after a code commit.
  • Reliance on remote servers can delay test implementation
  • Testing Android applications necessitates the most recent APIs from Android Operating Systems that support new platform traits.
  • Android application testing must be performed on real devices and Android Emulator online.

Key Traits of Espresso Framework

Espresso offers a wide series of traits such as:

  1. Synchronization Proficiencies: This framework guarantees that the User Interface or mobile app you are testing has previously started before your test starts. It allows you to make sure that the background apps have been finished. It also has idling resources – a simple case of asynchronous activities whose outcomes eventually affect operations in User Interface testing. Registering idle resources with this framework can perfectly scrutinize these asynchronous activities when testing Android applications.
  2. Android Intents: It is a mechanism that allows your app to converse with the Android System and 3rd-party apps. With Espresso, you can handle the Android Intents’ behavior to stub them out to offer pre-defined responses. Testing turns out to be more robust when there is slight dependence on modifications to external applications introduced with every single release.
  3. Scalable: It is also highly flexible. Espresso has lightweight and simple APIs that are simpler to learn and manage. It gives support for Black-box testing and Unit testing.
  4. WebView Testing: It offers an independent module to execute Android WebView testing of User Interface elements and to mock and test Android Intents.
  5. Faster Feedback: Espresso also allows software developers to accomplish speedy feedback on code modifications and rapidly debug and fix problems.
  6. Serverless Interaction: It does not utilize any server such as Selenium RemoteWebDriver for communication. Instead, it runs together with the app and gives test outcomes promptly.

Steps to Get Started

Espresso is an exclusive test framework to integrate into your automation test strategy. You can either leverage Android device labs or the power of real-device cloud platforms like LambdaTest for your test implementation.


In order to automate your test scenario utilizing the Espresso framework, these are the prerequisites: required

  1. Install Espresso: You need to have a basic Espresso set up with the appropriate test environment details. Refer to the authorized Espresso doc to assist with setup.
  2. Signup LambdaTest: Sign up to LambdaTest for free to encounter super-fast Android application test automation with Espresso across 3000+ OS, browsers, and devices.
  3. Incorporate LambdaTest: You might generate testing to check your application’s functionality and User Interface by incorporating Espresso into your Android project. In case you want to execute a test over a demo Android application, we employ an.apk file; you can perform your sample testing on LambdaTest via a sample Espresso Test & sample Android app.
  4. Implement Tests: Arrange your LambdaTest username, LambdaTest access key, and LambdaTest Hub URL in your test configurations. Browse the automated dashboard to obtain your login credentials.

Upload Your Android App

Upload your application (.apk file) to the LambdaTest servers utilizing our REST API. Moreover, you have to authenticate by providing your AccessKey and Username in the format ‘Username:AccessKey’ in the cURL command. You have to integrate the appFile’s path in the cURL request.

One of the samples cURL requests to upload your app via our REST API:

curl -X POST “https://api.lambdatest.com/automation/api/v1/app/upload”

-H “Authorization: Bearer YOUR_API_KEY”

-F file=@/path/to/your/app.apk

Here in cURL request:

  • Substitute “YOUR_API_KEY” with a real LambdaTest API key.
  • State the path to your application’s APK file in preference to “/path/to/your/app.apk”.

This request enables you to upload your application to LambdaTest for additional automation and testing.

Uploading Test Suite

Now the next phase is to upload the test suite (.apk file) to the cloud platform servers via our REST API. For validation, you have to integrate your AccessKey and Username in the ‘Username:AccessKey’ format within the cURL command.


 It is significant in the cURL request to state the path of the appFile. Let us see the example cURL request to upload a test suite (APK file) to LambdaTest servers via their REST API:

curl -X POST “https://api.lambdatest.com/automation/api/v1/app/upload”


-F file=@/path/to/your/test-suite.apk

In this request:

  • With your LambdaTest AccessKey and Username (encoded in Base64 format), you have to replace “BASE64_ENCODED_USERNAME_ACCESSKEY”. The format must be ‘Username:AccessKey’ encrypted as Base64.
  • State the path to the test suite APK file in place of “/path/to/your/test-suite.apk.”

This request allows you to upload your test suite using their REST API to LambdaTest servers for further automation and testing.

Implementing the Test

Once you have uploaded your app and test suite effectively to LambdaTest, you can proceed to perform your testing by running the following command:

curl -X POST “https://api.lambdatest.com/automation/api/v1/executions”


-d ‘{

  “capabilities”: {

    “browserName”: “chrome”,

    “version”: “latest”,

    “Platform”: “WIN10”,

    “build”: “Your Build Name”,

    “name”: “Your Test Name”,

    “app”: “lambdatestApp”



In this request:

  • With your LambdaTest AccessKey and Username (encoded in Base64 format), you need to replace “BASE64_ENCODED_USERNAME_ACCESSKEY”. The format must be the ‘Username:AccessKey’ format.
  • Modify the “browser name,” “version,” “platform,” “build,” and “name” fields to match your particular test requirements.
  • Make certain that the “app” field is set to the suitable app identifier, which must match the uploaded application.

Access Test Execution

Once you have executed your testing, you can access and scrutinize the test execution details and counting logs. This will allow you to notice the status of each independent test case, whether it has failed or passed. You can appropriately access this information on platform like LambdaTest Automation. Moreover, here is LambdaTest’s official support document to assist you in your espresso test.

Performing Testing in Parallel

Running tests in parallel on several devices is a robust method to expedite your testing procedure and confirm thorough test coverage. With LambdaTest, you can attain this proficiently by using the “execute” command and stating the device names using a comma-separated format. This capability lets you distribute your testing across varied gadgets, guaranteeing faster test implementation and enhanced test effectiveness.

Here’s how you can use the “execute” command to perform testing in parallel on manifold devices, leveraging the LambdaTest’s cloud-centric platform’s power:

# Example command to run tests in parallel on multiple devices

lambda-test execute test-suite.yaml –devices “Device1,Device2,Device3”

In the command above, “test-suite.yaml” signifies your test suite configuration file, Moreover, “Device1,” “Device2,” & “Device3” are the device names on which you are willing to perform the testing. LambdaTest will distribute the tests across such devices, confirming efficient and real-time testing.

Why LambdaTest for Espresso testing?

LambdaTest is an AI-powered test orchestration and test execution platform, providing consistency, speed, and flexibility. The cloud platform supports a plethora of browsers and OSs, covering over 3000 combinations. Trusted by over 500 organizations and 2 million+ consumers across 130+ nations, LambdaTest fast-tracks your testing procedure for speedy time-to-market.

What does LambdaTest Provide?

  • LambdaTest provides a complete online browser farm with support for 3000+ actual browsers and OSs, encompassing Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Edge, Safari, IE, and more.
  • Execute 70% rapid test implementation with HyperExecute- an E2E test orchestration cloud.
  • Test across multiple geographies with a geo-location test trait.
  • Lessen test flakiness, reduce job times, and obtain quick feedback on code modifications with Test at Scale.
  • Leverage parallel tests to implement tests simultaneously across numerous devices and browsers, optimizing effectiveness.
  • Captures screenshots & records videos of your testing sessions, giving visual evidence of test implementation and allowing better bug reporting and documents.
  • Execute Mobile App test on Real-time Device cloud.
  • Testing your locally hosted mobile and web applications with LambdaTest tunnel.
  • Testing for online Accessibility tests.
  • Automation traits are compatible with standard test automation frameworks such as Playwright, Selenium, Espresso, Pytest, Cypress, etc.
  • Benefit from 120+ 3rd-party incorporations with common tools for Project Management, Codeless Automation, CI/CD, and more.

Advantages of Automation With LambdaTest And Espresso:

  • Real-World Testing: Access to real-time devices confirms realistic testing, simulating user experiences appropriately.
  • High Test Coverage: Test your mobile application on a diverse series of Android devices, confirming comprehensive test coverage.


  • Faster Feedback: Parallel test expedites test feedback, enabling speedy issue identification & resolution.
  • Lucrative: Decrease test infrastructure expenses by leveraging cloud-centric real devices.

Drawbacks of The Espresso Framework

  • It can only test UIs. Thus, Espresso has a partial test scope.
  • It cannot run iOS test automation of mobile apps.
  • It only supports 2 programming languages – Kotlin and Java. Therefore, has technology and language stack limitations.
  • To utilize Espresso, you need access to the application’s source code.
  • QA professionals must have a basic understanding of Android tests to use the Espresso framework.


Automating both native and hybrid mobile app testing is crucial for expediting the product development cycle and guaranteeing top-quality application releases. Espresso emerges as a robust test framework. With its automatic synchronization, user-friendly Application Programming Interface, and effective test orchestration, Espresso eases the process of generating UI tests for Android apps.

Take your espresso testing to the next height with a cloud-centric platform like LambdaTest that is released to enhance your testing experience and deliver better outcomes. With this cloud platform, you can focus on testing while leaving the intricacies of infrastructure management to the cloud platform.

Sign up now and receive 100 mins of free tests together with 2 parallel mobile plus web test automation.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • What is Espresso, and why is it famous for mobile app testing?

It is an open-source framework released by Google to automate the Android app testing. Espresso is famous because of its effectiveness, synchronization competencies, and real-time feedback, making it an ideal option for testing Android applications.

  • Where can I find extra resources and documentation for using Espresso with LambdaTest?

You can refer to LambdaTest’s authorized support resources and documentation for descriptive data on using Espresso for mobile app testing. Moreover, our support team is accessible to assist you with any questions.

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