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What Are Examples of Cost of Goods Sold



What Are Examples of Cost of Goods Sold

Good questions, from you, a cherry-grinding coder! You want one example of COGS, so I’ll give you one. The cost of goods sold is the cost of all the goods—materials and labor—to produce the product. COGS is the cost to the company of producing the product. It covers our costs and profits from our operations.

Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) refers to the costs companies incur when they purchase resources and other items needed to produce a product. It is important to note that COGS is not the same as COGS expense. COGS is the cost of the things that a company purchases for their business, while COGS expense is the cost of those same items purchased for the business.

Accounting Home What are examples of cost of goods sold?

Accounting by Adam Hill

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Although selling, general and administrative expenses are generally synonymous with operating expenses, in many cases they are recorded as expenses in a separate line item in the income statement under cost of goods sold. OPEX is not included in cost of goods sold (COGS) but consists of direct costs associated with the production of the Company’s goods and services. Production costs include direct labor, direct materials or raw materials, and overhead costs of production facilities.

If she uses the average cost, her cost is 22 ((10+10+12+12)/4 x 2). So, for accounting and tax purposes, the profit can be 20, 18 or 16 depending on the stock method. Cost of goods sold, often abbreviated to COGS, is a business calculation that measures the direct costs incurred to produce the products sold during the period. In other words, it is the amount the company spent on labor, materials and overhead to produce or purchase the products sold to customers during the year. Inventories that are sold are included in the income statement in the cost of sales.

But sometimes general and administrative expenses are presented in the income statement as a subcategory of operating expenses. The popularity of online marketplaces such as eBay and Etsy has led to an expansion of the trade that takes place on these marketplaces. Some companies operate exclusively through online stores, taking advantage of a global target market and low operating costs. Although a non-traditional business, these companies must pay taxes and prepare financial records like any other business.

It is also an important fact that a company must include in its tax return. Cost of goods sold (COGS), also called cost of sales or cost of services, is the cost of producing your products or services.

International and U.S. accounting standards require that certain abnormal costs, such as. B. costs related to unused capacity are charged to the income statement and not included in the inventory. Operating expenses (OPEX) and cost of goods sold (COGS) are separate groups of costs that companies incur in their daily operations.

Companies must keep track of all costs directly or indirectly related to the production of products for sale. This cost is called cost of goods sold (COGS) and this calculation appears in the profit and loss account (P&L) of the company.

What is a FIFO?

The cost of goods produced is generally recognised as a separate item in the income statement. Cost of goods sold is an accounting term that describes the expenses incurred to produce the goods or services sold by a business. These are direct costs only, and only firms that sell a good or service can report GIC on their income statement.

How to calculate cost of sales without purchases

To calculate FIFO (First-In, First-Out), determine the value of the oldest inventory and multiply it by the amount of inventory sold, and to calculate LIFO (Last-In, First-Out), determine the value of the most recent inventory and multiply it by the amount of inventory sold.

Costing formula

General and administrative costs are generally costs which form part of the overhead of an enterprise, since they cannot be directly related to the production of products or services. SG&A expenses include almost everything not included in cost of goods sold (COGS). Interest expense is a significant expense item that is not part of general and administrative expenses and is recognized as a separate line item in the income statement. Selling, general and administrative expenses also include the Company’s operating expenses not included in direct production costs or cost of goods sold.

  • General and administrative costs are generally costs which form part of the overhead of an enterprise, since they cannot be directly related to the production of products or services.
  • Interest expense is a significant expense item that is not part of general and administrative expenses and is recognized as a separate line item in the income statement.

The two main types of costing systems used by companies with inventories are absorption costing and variable costing. In cost accounting, fixed production overhead costs, such as rent or property taxes, are allocated to the cost of goods produced. Under the variable cost method, the cost of goods sold includes the variable costs of labor, materials and overhead. Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the direct cost of producing the goods sold by the company. This amount shall include the cost of materials and labour used directly in the manufacture of the product.

Consequently, their value is reflected as different items in the company’s income statement. But both these expenses are deducted from the total income of the company.

For financial reporting purposes, expenses for the period, such as B. Purchasing department costs, inventories, and other operating expenses, which are generally considered to be outside inventory or cost of goods sold. For U.S. income tax purposes, some of these recurring expenses must be capitalized as part of the accrued liability. The cost of selling, packaging and delivering goods to customers is considered an operating cost of sales.

Production costs and prices

This rent is allocated to revenue as part of the production overhead. If production remains in stock, rental costs are included in the cost of goods produced as part of indirect production costs. When products are sold, the rent charged for them is recorded as part of the cost of goods sold. The Internal Revenue Service allows labor costs to be considered as part of the cost of goods sold if the company is engaged in mining or manufacturing. In these companies, the labour costs allocated to the cost of goods sold should be the costs directly attributable to the receipt of the raw materials and their transformation into a marketable finished product.

Indirect costs, such as B. The costs of distribution and sales personnel are not included. She buys cars A and B for 10 each and then buys cars C and D for 12 each. For specific marking the cost is 10 + 12, specific cost of machines A and C.

Using FIFO means that the cost of sales is higher because the most expensive items in inventory are sold first. In addition, the taxes paid by the company will be lower because it will make less profit. Over a long period of time, these savings can be significant for the company. When a company charges rent for production activities, the rent is the cost of production. Rent is usually included in production overhead, which is either allocated to income or charged to income.

The initial stock is the remaining stock of the previous year, i.e. the goods that have not been sold in the previous year. Any additional production or purchases by the producing or retailing company will be added to the original stock. At the end of the year, unsold products are deducted from the initial stock and additional purchases. The final figure resulting from this calculation is the cost of sales for the year. In general, a company’s operating expenses and general and administrative expenses are the same costs – costs that are independent of and not included in the cost of goods sold.

The cost of goods sold balance is an estimate of the money the company spent for the goods and services it sold during the reporting period. The company’s cost accounting system and inventory valuation method may affect the calculation of cost of sales. Additional costs may include freight charges for the purchase of goods, customs duties, non-refundable sales tax or use tax on materials used, and acquisition costs.

Deducted from sales, operating expenses determine a company’s gross profit. The most common method of calculating cost of sales is to take the annual inventory at the beginning of the year, add up all purchases, and then subtract the inventory at the end of the year from that amount. For example, a car manufacturer’s manufacturing costs include the cost of materials for the parts that go into the vehicle and the labor costs for assembling the vehicle. The costs of transporting the vehicles to the dealers and the labour costs of selling the vehicle are excluded. The cost of goods sold can be determined after sales and before gross profit in the multilevel income statement.

They must also book their inventories and take advantage of tax deductions just like other retailers, including by recording cost of goods sold (COGS) in the income statement. The LIFO method of financial accounting can be used instead of the FIFO method when the cost of inventories increases, for example due to inflation.

Cost of goods sold includes the direct costs of materials and labor required to produce each good or service sold. The cost of goods sold generally includes the labor, material and overhead costs incurred in bringing the product to market. However, exactly what is included in the cost of goods sold depends on the cost accounting system used by the enterprise.{“@context”:”https://schema.org”,”@type”:”FAQPage”,”mainEntity”:[{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”What is included in cost of goods sold?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:” Cost of goods sold includes the cost of raw materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead.”}},{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”What categories fall under cost of goods sold?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:” Cost of goods sold includes the cost of materials, labor, and overhead used to make the product.”}},{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:””,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:””}}]}

Frequently Asked Questions

What is included in cost of goods sold?

Cost of goods sold includes the cost of raw materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead.

What categories fall under cost of goods sold?

Cost of goods sold includes the cost of materials, labor, and overhead used to make the product.

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Enchanted Woods and Forest Slots: Exploring the Mystical Realm of Nature




In the realm of online casino gaming, a genre taps into the enchanting allure of nature and woodland mysteries: Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots. These slots transport players into the heart of lush forests, where mythical creatures, ancient trees, and hidden treasures await discovery – play it here.

In this article, we will delve into the captivating world of Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots, exploring their captivating features, woodland themes, and their magical gaming experience.

Immersed in the Wonder of Nature with Forest Slots

Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots represent a captivating subgenre within online slot games, drawing inspiration from forests’ lush beauty and mystical aura. They offer a fusion of natural aesthetics, woodland creatures, and the potential for substantial real-money rewards. These slots appeal to fans of nature and wildlife and players seeking an escape into a world of tranquility and enchantment.

Key Features of Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots

Lush Woodland Aesthetics

The standout feature of Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots is their ability to recreate the serene and mystical ambiance of the forest. These games often boast towering trees, moss-covered stones, and enchanting glades—the graphics and animations transport players to a world of natural wonders, creating an immersive gaming experience.

Iconic Forest Symbols

Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots feature symbols emblematic of the woodland realm. Players can expect to encounter woodland creatures like deer and owls, ancient trees, magical toadstools, and the elusive fairies and sprites that inhabit these enchanted woods. These symbols add to the game’s visual allure and play a critical role in determining winning combinations and triggering bonus features.

Woodland Creatures and Mystical Beings

To enhance the forest experience, these slots often incorporate encounters with mythical creatures and mystical woodland beings. Players may interact with fairies, elves, unicorns, and other fantastical inhabitants of the enchanted woods. These interactions add an extra layer of enchantment and engagement to the gameplay, providing players with a sense of wonder and magic.


Forest Magic Bonus Rounds

In Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots, players often engage in bonus rounds that tap into the mystical energies of the forest. These may involve participating in magical ceremonies, uncovering hidden pathways, or seeking the blessings of ancient forest guardians. These bonus rounds immerse players in the enchanting world of the forest, intensifying the gaming experience.

Themes in Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots

These slots come in a variety of themes, each offering a different woodland adventure:

Fairy Glades

These slots focus on the magical realms inhabited by fairies and sprites, where players can explore glades, seek hidden treasures, and receive the blessings of forest spirits.

Mystical Creatures

In these games, players encounter mythical creatures like unicorns, centaurs, and magical creatures as they explore the forest’s depths in search of hidden wonders.

Ancient Trees and Guardians

These slots revolve around the wisdom and magic of ancient trees, where players seek out the guidance and blessings of these wise woodland sentinels.

Woodland Treasures

In these games, players embark on quests to discover hidden treasures and uncover the riches that lie within the heart of the enchanted woods.

Winning Real Money in Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots

While the immersive themes and woodland aesthetics are the main attractions, players can also win real money while enjoying Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots. These games offer various opportunities to form winning combinations, trigger bonus rounds, and accumulate substantial payouts, much like traditional slots.



Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots offer a uniquely immersive experience within online casino gaming. Whether you’re a fan of magical glades, encounters with mystical creatures, seeking the wisdom of ancient trees, or embarking on quests for woodland treasures, there’s a Forest Slot or Enchanted Woods Slot that can transport you to the heart of nature’s mysteries. With enchanting visuals, iconic woodland symbols, and engaging gameplay, these slots provide a truly unforgettable gaming experience. So, step into the enchanted woods and let the magic of nature guide you on a journey of wonder and discovery!

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Acquiring Sweeps Coins in Sweeptastic for 2023





Sweeptastic is a newly launched sweepstakes casino that is currently in the early stages of establishing itself in the industry. Although there are areas, such as its game library and user interface, that are still undergoing refinement, the casino shows potential, particularly with its attractive welcome offer and continuous promotions. Despite a somewhat limited range of games, Sweptastic offers a decent entry point for players looking to explore the world of sweepstakes casinos.

Legitimacy of Sweeptastic Casino

Assessing the legitimacy of an online gaming site involves subjective judgment, but there are signs and factors that can help determine the intention behind a platform.

One important consideration is the transparency of the owner company, and in the case of Sweeptastic, this information is readily available on the casino’s site – Heuston Gaming Limited with registration number 104624.

Additionally, Sweeptastic has taken steps to enhance transparency and player safety. They provide a page displaying the Return to Player (RTP) of all available games and have a Responsible Gaming page that discusses how players can have the best gaming experience while maintaining control over their habits.

With these measures, including comprehensive information and tools for self-control, Sweeptastic demonstrates a commitment to ensuring the safety and well-being of its players.


Sweptastic has a straightforward system with two virtual currencies: Gold Coins and Sweepstakes Coins, also known as Lucky Coins.

Lucky Coins (Gold Coins)

In Sweptastic, Gold Coins go by the name Lucky Coins. These coins are exclusively for playing games for fun and hold no real-world value. While the casino generously provides them for free, you also have the option to purchase additional Lucky Coins. They serve as a useful tool for exploring games before committing your valuable Sweepstakes Coins.

Sweepstakes Coins

Critical to the sweepstakes casino experience, Sweepstakes Coins are the virtual currency that transforms your in-game winnings into real money. Sweptastic retains the original name, emphasizing that winnings in Sweepstakes Coins can be redeemed for actual cash. Notably, these coins cannot be bought; however, Sweeptastic offers them abundantly through various promotions or as a bonus when you purchase Lucky Coins.

Promotional Offers at Sweeptastic

Promotions at Sweeptastic are designed to set high standards, offering players ample opportunities to enjoy their favorite games and potentially win real money rewards without the need for any purchases. Let’s delve into the details of each promotional offer:

Signup Bonus

Sweeptastic stands out by providing one of the most generous free welcome bonuses in the sweepstakes casino realm – a whopping 27,777 Gold Coins + 10 Sweepstakes Coins.


At the same time, the full offer requires account verification; merely registering grants you an initial reward of 10,000 Lucky Coins (Gold Coins).

Daily Login

Acknowledging active members, Sweeptastic adopts the common practice of a Daily Login Bonus but distinguishes itself with a substantial amount of freebies. Simply log in each day, and the casino automatically boosts your balance with 1,000 Lucky Coins.

Happy Hours

For early birds, Sweeptastic introduces Happy Hours, generously gifting 3,000 Lucky Coins every morning between 7 am and 10 am. This bonus is seamlessly added to your account upon login, requiring no additional steps or claims.

First Purchase Offer

While Sweeptastic lavishes players with substantial free coins, the extensive gaming catalog may lead to their quick depletion. In anticipation of this, the social casino presents two exclusive offers for your initial coin purchase:

  • $17.49 pack – 25,000 LC + 25 SC (30% off)
  • $29.49 pack – 45,000 LC + 45 SC (35% off)

Purchase Methods

Now that you’re acquainted with Sweeptastic’s virtual coins let’s explore the options available if you decide to make a purchase on this casino-style gaming platform. Sweeptastic offers six predefined Lucky Coin bundles, each accompanied by complimentary Sweepstakes Coins. You can make purchases using widely accepted bank cards like Visa, Mastercard, and American Express, among others. Additionally, popular online payment providers are supported, ensuring a seamless transaction experience based on our testing.

Redeeming Prizes

For many players, the most exciting aspect is whether Sweptastic truly pays out real cash prizes. The answer is a resounding yes, and the redemption process is notably faster compared to other sweepstakes casinos. You have various redemption options, including bank transfers, gift cards, and even merchandise if you prefer tangible rewards.


It’s crucial to note that to complete the redemption process; you must verify your account through KYC (providing documents for identity, address, phone, and bank account verification), wager the Sweepstakes Coins at least once (as they are received as a bonus), and have a Sweepstakes Coins balance equivalent to at least $100.


Since its inception, Sweeptastic has set the standard for how things should be done in the sweepstakes casino world. Whether it’s bonuses, games, or player care, this social casino brand truly stands out.

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Enhancing User Engagement And App Discovery: The Impact of User-Friendly Interfaces in App Catalogs




Mobile applications have become an integral part of our daily lives. From social networking to productivity tools, there is an app for everything. With millions of apps available across various platforms, app catalogs are crucial in helping users discover new applications. However, the success of these catalogs greatly depends on user experience, particularly the user-friendliness of their interfaces.

The Significance of User-Friendly Interfaces

User-friendly interfaces are essential elements of app catalogs as they directly influence how users interact with and explore the available apps. A well-designed and intuitive interface can significantly enhance the overall user experience. Here are some key factors that highlight the significance of user-friendly interfaces:

1.1 Navigational Ease

One of the primary benefits of a user-friendly interface is navigational ease. When users can easily browse through app categories, search for specific apps, and access relevant information, they are more likely to engage with the catalog for longer periods.

1.2 Visual Appeal

The visual appeal of an app catalog matters. An attractive and well-organized layout can captivate users and encourage them to explore further. A cluttered or confusing interface, on the other hand, can deter users from using the catalog.

1.3 User Feedback

User-friendly interfaces often include features for user feedback, such as ratings and reviews. This feedback helps users make informed decisions about which apps to download, enhancing their overall experience.

Comprehensive App Collection

APPiX360’s extensive app collection caters to a wide array of interests and needs. The platform regularly updates its offerings with the latest and most popular apps, ensuring users have access to the newest trends and tools. The importance of user reviews and ratings in aiding informed decisions is a testament to the platform’s user-centric approach. The platform’s commitment to ensuring safe downloads is exemplified through its stringent vetting process, which can be illustrated through the safe downloading of the Pin-up app.

Impact on User Engagement

User engagement is a crucial metric for app catalogs. It measures how actively users interact with the catalog, and user-friendly interfaces can have a profound impact on engagement levels:

2.1 Longer Time Spent

A user-friendly interface encourages users to explore more apps, leading to longer sessions within the catalog. When users find it easy to navigate, they are likely to spend more time searching for new apps and discovering content.

2.2 Higher Retention Rates

Apps with user-friendly interfaces tend to have higher retention rates. Users are more likely to return to the catalog regularly if they had a positive experience during their previous visits. This consistent engagement benefits both users and app developers.

2.3 Increased App Downloads

Improved user engagement often leads to an increase in app downloads. When users feel comfortable and confident while using the catalog, they are more likely to take the next step and download apps that pique their interest.


Impact on App Discovery

App discovery is a critical aspect of app catalogs, as it directly affects an app’s success. User-friendly interfaces play a significant role in enhancing the app discovery process:

3.1 Effective Search and Filtering

User-friendly catalogs offer efficient search and filtering options. Users can easily narrow down their choices based on categories, keywords, or ratings. This simplifies the app discovery process and helps users find relevant apps more quickly.

3.2 Personalized Recommendations

Many app catalogs use user data to provide personalized app recommendations. A user-friendly interface makes it easier for catalogs to collect and analyze user preferences, leading to more accurate and appealing app suggestions.

3.3 Social Integration

User-friendly interfaces often incorporate social features, such as sharing and following. These features enable users to discover apps recommended by their friends or influencers, fostering a sense of community within the catalog.


The Pin-Up App Download Experience

As we explore the impact of user-friendly interfaces, let’s take a closer look at the Pin-Up app download experience as an example. Pin-Up is an online casino and sports betting platform that offers a mobile app for users to enjoy their favorite games and place bets conveniently.

4.1 Navigational Simplicity

The Pin-Up app catalog boasts a user-friendly interface that simplifies the navigation process. Users can easily access different sections of the app, such as casino games, sports betting, and promotions, through a well-organized menu.

4.2 Visual Appeal

The catalog’s visual design is visually appealing, featuring vibrant colors and clear graphics. This visually engaging interface captures users’ attention and encourages them to explore the app further.

4.3 User Feedback

Pin-Up’s user-friendly interface incorporates user feedback in the form of reviews and ratings for games and sports events. This feedback helps users make informed decisions about what to play or bet on, enhancing their overall experience.


In conclusion, user-friendly interfaces are instrumental in shaping the success of app catalogs by positively impacting user engagement and app discovery. Navigational ease, visual appeal, and user feedback are key elements that contribute to a user-friendly experience. As demonstrated by the Pin-Up app download experience, a well-designed interface can enhance the overall user journey, leading to higher user engagement, increased app downloads, and improved app discovery. App catalogs that prioritize user-friendliness are more likely to thrive in the competitive digital landscape, benefiting both users and developers alike.

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