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Variance and Standard Deviation



Variance and Standard Deviation

This week we’re going to get into a topic that we often forget about, but how can you tell if the random numbers are random or not? Have you ever been in a situation where you estimate how much money you have in a stack of cash, but it turns out you’re a few dollars short? Or you estimate that your average income is around 6000 dollars a month but you don’t know how many days there are in a month, so you end up with an average income of 5,200 dollars. So, we have a situation where the random numbers generated by a computer program seem to be random, but in reality they are not. This week we’re going to look at these situations, and why they are actually a perfect example of

It’s always been puzzling to me why so many “professional” investment gurus and analysts make so many wild claims about the returns of various investments, then go on to “prove” these claims with their own calculations. Like most investors, I’ve always assumed that the larger the number, the better. However, it turns out that this is not the case.

Variance and standard deviation of the domestic accounts

12. October 2020
Accounting Adam Hill

What is a cost deviation?

The difference in production overhead can be divided into differences in costs, efficiency and volume. In planning (or control in general), variance is the difference between planned, scheduled or standard costs and actual costs incurred/sold.

It may be favorable if budgeted fixed overhead costs are lower than actual fixed overhead costs, or unfavorable if actual costs are higher than budgeted costs. Managers recognize that it is not possible to make budget estimates, for example. B. Focus on winning, with precision.

There is a favourable deviation when the actual hours spent are lower than planned and an unfavourable deviation when the hours spent are higher than planned. If we look at the negative cost variances at the unit level in Example 3, we can say that there is no spare capacity.

What is the difference between fixed overhead?

The difference in fixed overhead costs is the difference between the actual fixed overhead costs and the budgeted fixed overhead costs. If a firm has spent more on fixed overhead than it should (based on a standard set by management), the variance of fixed overhead is unfavorable.

Variance analysis is important to help manage the budget by checking planned and actual costs. In program and project management, e.g. Financial data is usually evaluated at key points in time or milestones. For example, a monthly closing report can quantify expenses, revenues, and inventory balances. Differences between planned and actual costs can lead to adjustments of business goals, objectives or strategies. This is the difference between actual and budgeted variable overhead costs due to the inefficient use of indirect materials and labor.

The difference in fixed overhead is obtained by subtracting the actual units produced from the budgeted units and then multiplying the result by the standard fixed cost per unit. The fixed standard costs per production unit are calculated by dividing the planned fixed overhead costs by the planned production volume. It can also be obtained by subtracting the actual hours spent in production from the planned hours and multiplying the result by the standard fixed costs per hour. It is favourable if the number of units actually produced is higher than the forecast and unfavourable if the number of units produced is lower than the forecast.

For example, the difference in material cost can be divided by the difference in material price and the difference in material use. The difference between actual direct labour costs and standard direct labour costs can be divided into tariff variance and efficiency variance.

These differences are calculated using machine hours as the cost factor. The favorable difference in OV costs is due to the fact that variable overhead costs ($1,845,000) were incurred as budgeted, despite the use of additional machine hours. The unfavorable difference in efficiency is due to the actual use of 59,000 vehicle hours instead of the planned 57,600 hours. This is the difference between the planned and actual level of production, measured using the fixed standard cost per unit of production.

The traditional analysis of variance presented below is based on Example 2, p. 41. The variable overhead (F) variance is $44.844 and the variable overhead efficiency variance is $44.844.

  • The variable overhead (F) variance is $44.844 and the variable overhead efficiency variance is $44.844.
  • The traditional analysis of variance presented below is based on Example 2, p. 41.

How do you calculate cost differences?

The expenditure discrepancy is the difference between actual expenditure and planned (or budgeted) expenditure. The variance in fixed overhead costs is called the fixed overhead variance and represents the actual costs incurred minus the planned costs.

Changes in general expenses

The overhead rate is the percentage by which you allocate variable overhead to production and production units based on the activity of the cost object. Fixed overhead costs are overhead costs that are not related to or incurred during production. These costs do not vary with production activities and are expensed as incurred.

The actual variable indirect production costs incurred are compared with the planned costs. It is calculated by subtracting the variable overhead actually incurred from the product of the standard variable overhead rate and the hours actually worked. A cost driver is an activity that can be used to quantify and apply variable costs.

The variance calculation should always be based on the planned or budgeted amount and the deduction of actual/planned value. So a positive number is good, a negative number is bad.

The difference is the difference between the actual figures and the budget estimates. The variance in overhead costs results from the difference between the actual variance in overhead costs and the variance budgeted or carried forward. The actual variances in overheads are those known at the end of a given reporting period, after the accounts have been prepared. Absorbed overhead is the overhead calculated based on a predetermined overhead rate for the product, i.e. the standard overhead rate. The purpose of variance analysis is generally to explain the difference (or variance) between actual costs and the standard costs allowed for production.

Variable overhead refers to the overhead costs incurred in production. Also apply the units with the cost factor and overhead rate.

The standard rates calculated for batch and product level activities are independent of production volume. This is the fundamental difference between CBA and traditional gap analysis.

This is the difference between the budgeted fixed overhead costs and the actual fixed overhead costs incurred. Due to changes in fixed overhead costs during the period. Differences in fixed overhead costs are calculated by subtracting actual fixed overhead costs from planned fixed overhead costs.

Do unfavourable variances indicate financial difficulties?

Your variable components may include items such as indirect materials, direct labor, and consumables. Fixed overhead costs can include rent, car insurance, maintenance, depreciation and more. The analysis of the variance of overhead costs is divided into variances for variable costs and fixed costs. Variance analysis helps management understand current costs and then control future costs.

The more plates that are produced, the more machine hours are required. This may lead managers to expect more machine hours in the future. The first step in the activity-based variance analysis is to allocate all overhead costs at the activity level. To obtain the standard rate, the annual overhead is divided by the practical capacity of the cost centre. Practical capacity is used to identify unused capacity and make the best use of it.{“@context”:”https://schema.org”,”@type”:”FAQPage”,”mainEntity”:[{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”How do you calculate variance and standard deviation?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:” The variance is the average squared deviation from the mean. The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.”}},{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”How do you find the variance?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:” The variance is found by taking the square root of the variance.”}},{“@type”:”Question”,”name”:”Why is standard deviation used more than variance?”,”acceptedAnswer”:{“@type”:”Answer”,”text”:” Standard deviation is used more than variance because it is easier to calculate.”}}]}

Frequently Asked Questions

How do you calculate variance and standard deviation?

The variance is the average squared deviation from the mean. The standard deviation is the square root of the variance.

How do you find the variance?

The variance is found by taking the square root of the variance.

Why is standard deviation used more than variance?

Standard deviation is used more than variance because it is easier to calculate.

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Enchanted Woods and Forest Slots: Exploring the Mystical Realm of Nature




In the realm of online casino gaming, a genre taps into the enchanting allure of nature and woodland mysteries: Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots. These slots transport players into the heart of lush forests, where mythical creatures, ancient trees, and hidden treasures await discovery – play it here.

In this article, we will delve into the captivating world of Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots, exploring their captivating features, woodland themes, and their magical gaming experience.

Immersed in the Wonder of Nature with Forest Slots

Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots represent a captivating subgenre within online slot games, drawing inspiration from forests’ lush beauty and mystical aura. They offer a fusion of natural aesthetics, woodland creatures, and the potential for substantial real-money rewards. These slots appeal to fans of nature and wildlife and players seeking an escape into a world of tranquility and enchantment.

Key Features of Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots

Lush Woodland Aesthetics

The standout feature of Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots is their ability to recreate the serene and mystical ambiance of the forest. These games often boast towering trees, moss-covered stones, and enchanting glades—the graphics and animations transport players to a world of natural wonders, creating an immersive gaming experience.

Iconic Forest Symbols

Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots feature symbols emblematic of the woodland realm. Players can expect to encounter woodland creatures like deer and owls, ancient trees, magical toadstools, and the elusive fairies and sprites that inhabit these enchanted woods. These symbols add to the game’s visual allure and play a critical role in determining winning combinations and triggering bonus features.

Woodland Creatures and Mystical Beings

To enhance the forest experience, these slots often incorporate encounters with mythical creatures and mystical woodland beings. Players may interact with fairies, elves, unicorns, and other fantastical inhabitants of the enchanted woods. These interactions add an extra layer of enchantment and engagement to the gameplay, providing players with a sense of wonder and magic.


Forest Magic Bonus Rounds

In Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots, players often engage in bonus rounds that tap into the mystical energies of the forest. These may involve participating in magical ceremonies, uncovering hidden pathways, or seeking the blessings of ancient forest guardians. These bonus rounds immerse players in the enchanting world of the forest, intensifying the gaming experience.

Themes in Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots

These slots come in a variety of themes, each offering a different woodland adventure:

Fairy Glades

These slots focus on the magical realms inhabited by fairies and sprites, where players can explore glades, seek hidden treasures, and receive the blessings of forest spirits.

Mystical Creatures

In these games, players encounter mythical creatures like unicorns, centaurs, and magical creatures as they explore the forest’s depths in search of hidden wonders.

Ancient Trees and Guardians

These slots revolve around the wisdom and magic of ancient trees, where players seek out the guidance and blessings of these wise woodland sentinels.

Woodland Treasures

In these games, players embark on quests to discover hidden treasures and uncover the riches that lie within the heart of the enchanted woods.

Winning Real Money in Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots

While the immersive themes and woodland aesthetics are the main attractions, players can also win real money while enjoying Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots. These games offer various opportunities to form winning combinations, trigger bonus rounds, and accumulate substantial payouts, much like traditional slots.



Forest Slots and Enchanted Woods Slots offer a uniquely immersive experience within online casino gaming. Whether you’re a fan of magical glades, encounters with mystical creatures, seeking the wisdom of ancient trees, or embarking on quests for woodland treasures, there’s a Forest Slot or Enchanted Woods Slot that can transport you to the heart of nature’s mysteries. With enchanting visuals, iconic woodland symbols, and engaging gameplay, these slots provide a truly unforgettable gaming experience. So, step into the enchanted woods and let the magic of nature guide you on a journey of wonder and discovery!

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Acquiring Sweeps Coins in Sweeptastic for 2023





Sweeptastic is a newly launched sweepstakes casino that is currently in the early stages of establishing itself in the industry. Although there are areas, such as its game library and user interface, that are still undergoing refinement, the casino shows potential, particularly with its attractive welcome offer and continuous promotions. Despite a somewhat limited range of games, Sweptastic offers a decent entry point for players looking to explore the world of sweepstakes casinos.

Legitimacy of Sweeptastic Casino

Assessing the legitimacy of an online gaming site involves subjective judgment, but there are signs and factors that can help determine the intention behind a platform.

One important consideration is the transparency of the owner company, and in the case of Sweeptastic, this information is readily available on the casino’s site – Heuston Gaming Limited with registration number 104624.

Additionally, Sweeptastic has taken steps to enhance transparency and player safety. They provide a page displaying the Return to Player (RTP) of all available games and have a Responsible Gaming page that discusses how players can have the best gaming experience while maintaining control over their habits.

With these measures, including comprehensive information and tools for self-control, Sweeptastic demonstrates a commitment to ensuring the safety and well-being of its players.


Sweptastic has a straightforward system with two virtual currencies: Gold Coins and Sweepstakes Coins, also known as Lucky Coins.

Lucky Coins (Gold Coins)

In Sweptastic, Gold Coins go by the name Lucky Coins. These coins are exclusively for playing games for fun and hold no real-world value. While the casino generously provides them for free, you also have the option to purchase additional Lucky Coins. They serve as a useful tool for exploring games before committing your valuable Sweepstakes Coins.

Sweepstakes Coins

Critical to the sweepstakes casino experience, Sweepstakes Coins are the virtual currency that transforms your in-game winnings into real money. Sweptastic retains the original name, emphasizing that winnings in Sweepstakes Coins can be redeemed for actual cash. Notably, these coins cannot be bought; however, Sweeptastic offers them abundantly through various promotions or as a bonus when you purchase Lucky Coins.

Promotional Offers at Sweeptastic

Promotions at Sweeptastic are designed to set high standards, offering players ample opportunities to enjoy their favorite games and potentially win real money rewards without the need for any purchases. Let’s delve into the details of each promotional offer:

Signup Bonus

Sweeptastic stands out by providing one of the most generous free welcome bonuses in the sweepstakes casino realm – a whopping 27,777 Gold Coins + 10 Sweepstakes Coins.


At the same time, the full offer requires account verification; merely registering grants you an initial reward of 10,000 Lucky Coins (Gold Coins).

Daily Login

Acknowledging active members, Sweeptastic adopts the common practice of a Daily Login Bonus but distinguishes itself with a substantial amount of freebies. Simply log in each day, and the casino automatically boosts your balance with 1,000 Lucky Coins.

Happy Hours

For early birds, Sweeptastic introduces Happy Hours, generously gifting 3,000 Lucky Coins every morning between 7 am and 10 am. This bonus is seamlessly added to your account upon login, requiring no additional steps or claims.

First Purchase Offer

While Sweeptastic lavishes players with substantial free coins, the extensive gaming catalog may lead to their quick depletion. In anticipation of this, the social casino presents two exclusive offers for your initial coin purchase:

  • $17.49 pack – 25,000 LC + 25 SC (30% off)
  • $29.49 pack – 45,000 LC + 45 SC (35% off)

Purchase Methods

Now that you’re acquainted with Sweeptastic’s virtual coins let’s explore the options available if you decide to make a purchase on this casino-style gaming platform. Sweeptastic offers six predefined Lucky Coin bundles, each accompanied by complimentary Sweepstakes Coins. You can make purchases using widely accepted bank cards like Visa, Mastercard, and American Express, among others. Additionally, popular online payment providers are supported, ensuring a seamless transaction experience based on our testing.

Redeeming Prizes

For many players, the most exciting aspect is whether Sweptastic truly pays out real cash prizes. The answer is a resounding yes, and the redemption process is notably faster compared to other sweepstakes casinos. You have various redemption options, including bank transfers, gift cards, and even merchandise if you prefer tangible rewards.


It’s crucial to note that to complete the redemption process; you must verify your account through KYC (providing documents for identity, address, phone, and bank account verification), wager the Sweepstakes Coins at least once (as they are received as a bonus), and have a Sweepstakes Coins balance equivalent to at least $100.


Since its inception, Sweeptastic has set the standard for how things should be done in the sweepstakes casino world. Whether it’s bonuses, games, or player care, this social casino brand truly stands out.

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Enhancing User Engagement And App Discovery: The Impact of User-Friendly Interfaces in App Catalogs




Mobile applications have become an integral part of our daily lives. From social networking to productivity tools, there is an app for everything. With millions of apps available across various platforms, app catalogs are crucial in helping users discover new applications. However, the success of these catalogs greatly depends on user experience, particularly the user-friendliness of their interfaces.

The Significance of User-Friendly Interfaces

User-friendly interfaces are essential elements of app catalogs as they directly influence how users interact with and explore the available apps. A well-designed and intuitive interface can significantly enhance the overall user experience. Here are some key factors that highlight the significance of user-friendly interfaces:

1.1 Navigational Ease

One of the primary benefits of a user-friendly interface is navigational ease. When users can easily browse through app categories, search for specific apps, and access relevant information, they are more likely to engage with the catalog for longer periods.

1.2 Visual Appeal

The visual appeal of an app catalog matters. An attractive and well-organized layout can captivate users and encourage them to explore further. A cluttered or confusing interface, on the other hand, can deter users from using the catalog.

1.3 User Feedback

User-friendly interfaces often include features for user feedback, such as ratings and reviews. This feedback helps users make informed decisions about which apps to download, enhancing their overall experience.

Comprehensive App Collection

APPiX360’s extensive app collection caters to a wide array of interests and needs. The platform regularly updates its offerings with the latest and most popular apps, ensuring users have access to the newest trends and tools. The importance of user reviews and ratings in aiding informed decisions is a testament to the platform’s user-centric approach. The platform’s commitment to ensuring safe downloads is exemplified through its stringent vetting process, which can be illustrated through the safe downloading of the Pin-up app.

Impact on User Engagement

User engagement is a crucial metric for app catalogs. It measures how actively users interact with the catalog, and user-friendly interfaces can have a profound impact on engagement levels:

2.1 Longer Time Spent

A user-friendly interface encourages users to explore more apps, leading to longer sessions within the catalog. When users find it easy to navigate, they are likely to spend more time searching for new apps and discovering content.

2.2 Higher Retention Rates

Apps with user-friendly interfaces tend to have higher retention rates. Users are more likely to return to the catalog regularly if they had a positive experience during their previous visits. This consistent engagement benefits both users and app developers.

2.3 Increased App Downloads

Improved user engagement often leads to an increase in app downloads. When users feel comfortable and confident while using the catalog, they are more likely to take the next step and download apps that pique their interest.


Impact on App Discovery

App discovery is a critical aspect of app catalogs, as it directly affects an app’s success. User-friendly interfaces play a significant role in enhancing the app discovery process:

3.1 Effective Search and Filtering

User-friendly catalogs offer efficient search and filtering options. Users can easily narrow down their choices based on categories, keywords, or ratings. This simplifies the app discovery process and helps users find relevant apps more quickly.

3.2 Personalized Recommendations

Many app catalogs use user data to provide personalized app recommendations. A user-friendly interface makes it easier for catalogs to collect and analyze user preferences, leading to more accurate and appealing app suggestions.

3.3 Social Integration

User-friendly interfaces often incorporate social features, such as sharing and following. These features enable users to discover apps recommended by their friends or influencers, fostering a sense of community within the catalog.


The Pin-Up App Download Experience

As we explore the impact of user-friendly interfaces, let’s take a closer look at the Pin-Up app download experience as an example. Pin-Up is an online casino and sports betting platform that offers a mobile app for users to enjoy their favorite games and place bets conveniently.

4.1 Navigational Simplicity

The Pin-Up app catalog boasts a user-friendly interface that simplifies the navigation process. Users can easily access different sections of the app, such as casino games, sports betting, and promotions, through a well-organized menu.

4.2 Visual Appeal

The catalog’s visual design is visually appealing, featuring vibrant colors and clear graphics. This visually engaging interface captures users’ attention and encourages them to explore the app further.

4.3 User Feedback

Pin-Up’s user-friendly interface incorporates user feedback in the form of reviews and ratings for games and sports events. This feedback helps users make informed decisions about what to play or bet on, enhancing their overall experience.


In conclusion, user-friendly interfaces are instrumental in shaping the success of app catalogs by positively impacting user engagement and app discovery. Navigational ease, visual appeal, and user feedback are key elements that contribute to a user-friendly experience. As demonstrated by the Pin-Up app download experience, a well-designed interface can enhance the overall user journey, leading to higher user engagement, increased app downloads, and improved app discovery. App catalogs that prioritize user-friendliness are more likely to thrive in the competitive digital landscape, benefiting both users and developers alike.

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